Basic Indian Laws Everyone Should Know

A democratic country like India, which values its citizens, has enacted hundreds of thousands of rules, laws and regulations to address their problems and provide financial, economic, personal, professional, and international assistance.

The laws are significant because they serve as a framework for what is considered acceptable in society. Laws safeguard our general safety and defend our rights as citizens against abuse by others, organisations, and the government itself. 

We have laws in place to ensure our general safety. If you breach the laws, you may be required to pay a fine, compensate for the harm you caused, or serve time in prison. Basic individual rights and freedoms, such as liberty and equality, are also recognised and protected by our laws. Consider the mayhem – and the risk – that would result if there were no rules.

  1. The Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 ensures that both boys and girls receive an equal share of their father’s estate.
  2. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 stipulates that no woman can be fired from her job for any reason.
  3. The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 prohibits married couples from adopting two children of the same gender.
  4. The Customer Protection Act, 1986 offers every consumer the right to a full refund if they are dissatisfied with their purchase or are unable to use the services for which they have paid. In reality, printing “No exchange or refund” on bills and invoices is both unlawful and unethical.
  5. The Criminal Procedure Code, section 46 says no woman can be arrested before 6 am or after 6 pm.
  6. According to the Indian Penal Code, Article 38(1) and Article 21, Every woman is entitled to free legal assistance to improve her position. When a woman goes to the police station to register a complaint, she is frequently accused of wrongdoing or humiliated, which is why she should always be accompanied by a lawyer.
  7. According to the Indian Penal Code, Section 166 AA, a police officer cannot refuse to file an FIR, and if he or she does, they may be sentenced to 6 months to a year in prison.
  8. According to the Automotive (Amendment) Bill of 2016, if you are penalised for a crime (such as riding without a helmet or for any other reason), you will not be fined again on the same day for the same offence.
  9. According to the Code Of Criminal Procedure, section 125, parents (whether biological, adopted, stepfather or stepmother, whether senior citizen or not) have the right to demand support from their adult children.
  10. According to the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881, section 138, a cheque bounce is a violation and is punishable by a fine of up to double the value of the check, imprisonment for up to two years, or both.
  11. The Right to Information, 2005 (Article 19 (1) (a)), any Indian citizen can seek information from any government agency, and the agency must respond as soon as possible or within thirty days.
  12. According to Police Act, 1861, a police officer is always on duty whether he/she wearing a uniform or not.
  13. According to Motor Vehicle Act 1988, section 185, 202, if your 100ml blood contains more than 30mg of alcohol while driving, the police can arrest you without a warrant. This law also states that snatching the key from a car or motorbike by a traffic cop is prohibited. You have all legal authority to file a complaint against the officer. 
  14. The Domestic Violence Act, 2005, a young boy and a young girl can live together in a “live-in relationship.” Even the child born from this union is a legal son or daughter who has full access to his or her father’s possessions.
  15. As per the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, section 13, any husband or wife may apply for divorce in the court on the grounds of Adultery (physical relationship outside of marriage), physical and mental abuse, impotency, to leave home without information, to change Hindu religion and adopt another religion, insanity, incurable disease, and no information about husband or wife for 7 years.
  16. As per the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, women can only be arrested by women police constables. A male officer has no authority to detain women. Women have the right to refuse to visit police stations between the hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. A male police officer can only arrest a woman in the instance of a serious offence after receiving a written order from the court. 
  17. Since non-motor vehicles like bicycles and rickshaws are not covered by the Motor Vehicles Act, there are no fines for them.
  18. If a woman is unable to attend the police station, the Delhi Police have established guidelines allowing her to file a report by email or even by mail. 
  19. The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976, demands equal compensation for equal labour done by men and women. When two or more persons perform the same task under identical conditions, they are entitled to equal compensation.
  20. According to the Indian Penal Code, section 309, anybody who tries suicide is deemed to be suffering from extreme stress unless proven otherwise, and will not be prosecuted or punished under the Code. 

Remember that ignorance is not bliss; you must be aware of the laws and your rights so that no one may exploit or abuse you.

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