They say that everything cures with time, but when it comes to the fate of some countries, the worst is yet to come, even though they have gone through hell.
This is the history of Afghanistan before America (2001) seized control of the country; it was in the hands of the Taliban, who were nothing more than madmen, as we see on the news every day.
With their twist on laws, regulations, and brutal punishments, they are a gang of wanted terrorists, thugs, criminals, and maniacs.
So, let’s go through the history of the country to understand how deeply they have suffered and still suffering:
- In 1838, the British ruled the lands of Afghanistan and in the process, resulting in three wars. They used it as a buffer for USSR to prevent them from seizing control over India.
- In 1919, Afghanistan freed itself from the claws of British Rule and declared its Independence. From there, Afghan PM Gen. Mohammed Daoud Khan started following the soviet government and started drawing economic and military help from them.
- He then defeated the Afghan King and declared Afghanistan a communist country (1950).
- This soon turned the country into a war zone where Islamic leaders fought to takeover. But USSR intervened and invaded the country to put a stop to this which resulted in the formation of a group of fighters known as the Mujahadeen. They fought against the Soviet army and Soviet-backed Afghan forces (1979). And as always, thousands of afghans left their homes and migrated to Iran and Pakistan.
- Then the mastermind and infamous terrorist Osama Bin Laden arrived in Afghanistan (1984) to assist the Mujahadeen. The United States, the United Kingdom, and other western countries also contributed arms and supplies to aid the Mujahadeen in their battle against the Soviet invasion and to prevent the government from growing in power.
- In 1988, the war came at a holt and a peace treaty was signed between UK, Pakistan, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. The Soviet troops were kicked out of the country but the presence of the Soviet-backed President (Elected in 1986 in the office) led to another war. The Mujahadeen wanted him to leave and used violence (such as shooting rockets and stealing businesses) to achieve their goal.
- The Taliban was created after the Mujahadeen conquered Kabul in 1992, as a result of internal strife that erupted into a civil war. Furthermore, the many groups of the Mujahadeen army rapidly began fighting one another, each vying for control of the country in their own unique way.
- The Taliban Rule (1996-2001):
In 1996, the Taliban formally took over the country from the Mujahadeen, declaring Afghanistan an Islamic Emirate after years of fighting (Land ruled by a usually-Muslim king).
They enacted draconian regulations based on their rigorous interpretation of Sharia, an Islamic law based on Quranic teachings that govern Muslims’ behaviour and activities in various aspects of life (like marriage or finances), which meant:
- Music and movies were prohibited.
- Anyone who is caught stealing could have a part of their body amputated.
- Women couldn’t work, go to school past the age of ten, leave the house without a man, or wear clothing that didn’t cover them from head to toe.
- Public floggings and executions were used to enforce the draconian laws.
Osama Bin Laden who came to Afghanistan to help Mujahadeen, in 1988, formed al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and was cooking up plans to fight countries (like the US), that they believed were opposed to the idea of an Islamic state.
- Al-Qaeda led an attack on two American embassies in Africa in 1998. President Bill Clinton retaliated with a missile strike on al-Qaeda training centres in Afghanistan, where bin Laden’s rising number of adherents were being educated. The US demanded bin Laden be extradited to stand trial for the embassy bombings, but the Taliban refused.
- On 11th Sep 2001, Four planes were hijacked by al-Qaeda terrorists and slammed into the World Trade Center in New York, the Pentagon outside of Washington, DC, and a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania. On US soil, nearly 3,000 Americans were killed. The US asked that bin Laden be given over once more. The Taliban, on the other hand, rejected once more.
This led to America invading Afghanistan in October 2001.
On May 2, 2011, a team of Navy SEALs led a mission into Abbottabad, Pakistan, where bin Laden was hiding in a compound and killed him under President Barack Obama’s direction.
The United States’ longest war has come to an end after nearly two decades of fighting. It cost about $2 trillion and roughly 3,000 American service members, 70,000 Afghan soldiers, and 50,000 Afghan civilians their lives.
Mullah Mohammad Hassan Akhund will be the Prime Minister and Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar will be the Deputy Prime Minister.
The list also featured some leaders of the US-designated terror organisation Haqqani Network. There were no outsiders chosen as Taliban leaders. Or any other female positions.
China is one of the few countries that has kept its embassy in Kabul open, indicating that it may be willing to conduct business with the country’s new government. Russia could be sending out similar signals as well. In terms of the United States, the Taliban has never been recognised as a government body. And it’s not likely to happen now.
The United States and 97 other countries reached an agreement with the Taliban to allow individuals to flee in safety. However, Pakistani and Iranian troops tightened their borders at the end of August, making it harder for hundreds of refugees to cross. Turkey has begun construction of a wall along its border with Iran in order to prevent refugees from entering through that route. Afghans have also attempted to migrate to Central Asian countries such as Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
The future of Afghanistan is uncertain and unyielding.